This article was co-written with Lynn Ehlers
Interventions aren’t new to education—they’re a long-time component of good instructional practices. But as districts implement multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) and response to intervention (RtI), interventions are being tracked, monitored, and tied to program evaluation in a way that is new to many. It’s also brought some lingering questions around best practices and how interventions fit with instruction to light.
Let’s take a look at interventions, the MTSS tiers, and how interventions are typically implemented in MTSS.
What are interventions in education?
An intervention is an additional instructional resource or support (beyond the high-quality classroom instruction that all students receive) that is aligned to a student’s needs. Good interventions are just a continuation of instruction, not a disruption.
When we intervene, we adjust our instructional actions to better support a student.
Interventions can look like a lot of different things.
An intervention might be a program the district adopts to support skill development, whether a computer-based product or a hands-on workshop. An intervention might be a change in instructional approach, such as a double-dose of explicit systematic instruction. An intervention also might be a specific instructional strategy intended to align directly to an individualized need that a student or group of students may have.
How does this fit in with MTSS? What are MTSS interventions?
In the context of MTSS, it’s important to keep in mind that interventions aren’t only implemented for students who are struggling, or only implemented for academic needs. In MTSS, we are systematically looking at each student, to identify academic, behavioral, or social emotional areas of need. We implement interventions for students who are struggling or need more challenge.
In the “tiered” MTSS system, interventions are also selected and implemented at different intensities and settings, based on the level of need.
Is this where the MTSS pyramid comes in?
Yes. Many educators have seen MTSS tiers depicted in a pyramid graphic, an example of which is shown in Figure 1.
What are the MTSS tiers?
The MTSS tiers are:
- Tier 1 – Universal Instruction: The high-quality classroom instruction that all students receive. This tier encompasses best practices, differentiated instruction, and is constantly refined by what is working at Tier 2 and Tier 3. Typically, districts aim to see 80-90% of students in Tier 1.
- Tier 2 – Targeted, Group Interventions The evidence-based supports provided to students who are identified as struggling. Tier 2 interventions are typically implemented in small group settings, based on a similar need identified through assessment and for the sake of systematic efficiency. Districts typically expect to see 5-15% of students in Tier 2.
- Tier 3 – Intensive, Individualized Interventions The supports implemented for students not responding to Tier 2 supports. Tier 3 supports provide more frequent, intense, and individualized interventions. Usually, districts expect to see 1-5% of students in Tier 3.
Keep in mind that students can be in different tiers for different needs at the same time. For example, a student might be in a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention for a social emotional need (such as self-management), while at the same time succeeding in Tier 1 for math.
How are students identified for an intervention in MTSS?
Typically, students are identified as at-risk or below benchmark via a universal screening assessment, such as FAST. This is done at the beginning of the year and periodically throughout the year. Math, reading, and social emotional learning behaviors are screened.
If a student is identified as potentially at risk, the student’s specific need (e.g., calculation vs. math, self-management vs. social emotional) is identified with diagnostics.
Diagnostic assessments, or in some cases diagnostic reporting garnered through analyses of some screeners, help pinpoint the exact area of need for better intervention alignment. For example, picking an ELA intervention that focuses on fluency won’t significantly help a student if the area of need is accuracy. Quality assessment tools such as FAST combine the universal screening, diagnostic, and intervention recommendation in one step, rather than three.
How is an MTSS intervention selected and implemented for a student?
Implementing an intervention generally follows the Problem Solving Cycle: Identify, Analyze, Implement, Reflect.
At a high-level, this might look like:
- Identify: Use universal screening data and diagnostics data to identify the area of need or acceleration.
- Analyze: Based on those data, select an aligned intervention, and create a plan for implementing it. The plan should specify the need, the measurable goal, and specific information about the intervention itself (what intervention, happening how often, for what duration, in what setting, facilitated by whom, etc.)
- Implement: Carry out the intervention to fidelity, as described in the plan. It is extremely important to collect data about the intervention itself! Record the student’s attendance in the intervention, the duration/ minute counts, intervention comments, and other fidelity metrics, etc. Frequently administer a progress monitoring measure tied to the intervention need, in order to track whether the intervention is improving student outcomes.
- Reflect: Review the progress monitoring data and the collected intervention data to evaluate whether the student is responding to the intervention. Decide whether the continue the intervention, adjust the intervention, or fade it out.
At each step, we’re evaluating and adjusting our actions. While the goal is to improve outcomes for kids, that improvement comes from the adults of a school system changing the way they work and the actions they take.
Illuminate supports districts nationwide with the assessments (including universal screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring), intervention tracking and documentation, and effectiveness evaluation reports needed for successful MTSS implementations. Reach out today to learn more.
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